Coffee beans are actually seeds that come from cherries-like fruits. When they are ready to be picked, coffee trees first produce cherry-like fruits that start out yellow. They then turn orange to become bright red. Clusters of coffee cherries are found along the branches of trees. The cherry's exocarp, which is the outer layer of the cherry, is thick and bitter.
The mesocarp, which is the fruit, is extremely sweet and has a texture similar to a grape. The Parenchyma is a sticky, almost honey-like layer that protects the beans within the coffee cherry. The endocarp is a protective, parchment-like wrap for green coffee beans. It also has a final membrane called the spermoderm. You can easily buy whole seed coffee online.
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Each year there is an average of one coffee harvest. The time it takes depends on where the coffee was grown. The coffee harvests in countries south of the Equator are in April and May, while those in North Africa tend to be later in the year. Two methods are used to pick coffee.
After they are picked, they must be processed immediately. Coffee pickers may pick between 45 to 90kg of cherries each day, but only 20% of that weight is the actual coffee bean. The coffee cherries are dried in the sun for 7-10 days. They are then turned and raked periodically. The goal is to reduce the moisture content to 11% in the coffee cherries.
The shells will turn brown, and the beans will rattle inside the cherry. The coffee cherries are removed from the beans in the wet process. This is different from the dry one. The outer skin and pulp are removed by a pulping machine.